Caregiver Duties, Traits, and Skills
Caregivers often provide care in the comfort of the care recipient’s home, making it a great alternative to long-term care facilities. Many people are choosing to use an in-home caregiver.
In some cases, a caregiver is a member of the family. In others, the family might decide to employ a caregiver to look after their loved one. Caregiving is a full-time job, especially if the care recipient needs constant care and supervision. That is why it is not always possible to have a family caregiver take care of a loved one. Even if a family employs a full-time professional caregiver, they will need to make arrangements for someone to look after their loved one when the primary caregiver has time off. This could be done by unpaid caregivers or an informal caregiver like a family member who can handle the caregiving responsibilities for shorter periods.
What is a caregiver?
A caregiver takes care of a person who cannot take care of themselves and may have special needs. This could include looking after older adults, people with disabilities, or those who are sick. ‘Taking care’ could refer to a number of duties and activities, and the tasks vary depending on each individual situation. A caregiver balances helping the care recipient with tasks while still letting them maintain as much independence as possible.
There are two general types of caregivers: non-skilled caregivers and skilled caregivers. Non-skilled caregivers refer to caregivers who do not have any official or accredited medical training. These individuals usually have elementary medical training and focus more on assisting others with tasks involved in their daily living. Non-skilled caregivers do not necessarily need to pass state exams. Still, they may need to undergo training and be registered. These requirements vary by state.
Skilled caregivers have a medical background, such as registered nurses, certified nursing assistants, licensed practical nurses, and home health assistants. Skilled caregivers usually need to complete specific medical training and complete a minimum number of practical hours. Like non-skilled caregivers, the requirements for skilled caregivers vary by state.
Typical Caregiver Duties
Caregiver duties vary from person to person and day to day. Persons who provide home care are often required to perform various tasks, all aimed at making the patient’s life more comfortable.
The degree of medical care that a caregiver can legally provide depends on the caregiver’s qualifications and the regulations stipulated by the state in which they are working. Qualified caregivers could dispense medication, dress wounds, change wound dressings, provide preventative medical care, and give medical advice. Non-skilled caregivers will likely not be allowed to perform these duties. They could, however, remind the care recipient to take their medication and possibly pick up the medication from the pharmacy. Caregivers can also make and confirm doctor’s appointments, remind the care recipient of these appointments, and accompany them when they visit their care team.
Both skilled and non-skilled caregivers need to observe, track, and note down any changes in the medical or health conditions of the person they are taking care of. Although non-skilled caregivers are not allowed to provide medical care or advice, they are required to bring up any changes regarding the patient’s health to the attention of the person’s loved ones, guardian, or medical team. Skilled caregivers will likely work more closely with the care receiver’s medical team and administer medication as prescribed to avoid any medications interacting with each other. Doctors’ orders should also be confirmed while ensuring that all treatments are consistent with the care recipient’s care plan.
Taking care of finances.
A caregiver may also take on the responsibility to handle any paperwork relating to the patient’s health insurance or other expenses. The caregiver could be required to look over billing statements to ensure that the care receiver is not being overcharged. They may also prepare the care recipient’s taxes or mail payments for bills. These tasks could also be dealt with by family members.
Personal care could include any task that the care recipient needs to do to take care of their physical needs. This could include bathing, grooming, dressing, and helping them relieve themselves. The caregiver could also assist the care recipient with exercising, especially home exercises prescribed by a physical therapist. If the care receiver has limited mobility, the caregiver should assist them when moving around or getting in and out of a wheelchair or bed.
A large part of caregiving includes giving emotional support. That also means providing the care recipient with opportunities to have social interaction. This is especially important when taking care of an older person who may easily feel isolated.
A caregiver can drive the care recipient to various social events and provide companionship to the care recipient. Because the caregiver spends large amounts of time with the care recipient, the recipient often relies heavily on this companionship. Caregivers and their charges often build strong bonds because of this.
Persons who have Alzheimer’s, dementia, or a similar ailment will require a caregiver who can give them grounding and orientation when needed. In these cases, the caregiver manages the care recipient’s frustration, agitation, and confusion that may arise as their memory starts to decline. The companionship between the caregiver and the recipient is essential in these cases.
A care provider who performs in-home care can assist in general home-relating duties like light cleaning and changing and washing linen. They may also be required to keep the care recipient’s living spaces clean, neat, and tidy. If the patient has dementia or Alzheimer’s disease, it is imperative to keep consistency and order in their home. Items that they use should be put in the same place all the time. This helps to create some certainty and stability in the care recipient’s surroundings. Keeping things in places familiar to them creates a level of comfort and prevents confusion and frustration.
Tasks like taking out the trash, cleaning the bathroom and kitchen may also form a part of a caregiver’s job description. In addition, caregivers may need to water plants, dust, and perform minor maintenance tasks like changing a lightbulb or unclogging a toilet. Other duties could include arranging for garden services or getting in a skilled worker to fix things like broken furnaces or plumbing. Live-in caregivers are responsible for keeping living spaces clean and tidy.
Caregivers are required to prepare and cook meals and snacks. They may also need to assist the person in eating or feeding themselves if they cannot perform this task by themselves. When preparing meals, the caregiver needs to adhere to any dietary restrictions, allergies, or preferences that the person in their care may have while ensuring they receive well-balanced and nutritional meals.
When preparing meals, the caregiver needs to keep in mind any interactions that certain foods may have with the care receiver’s medication. Current medical conditions like diabetes and high blood pressure or cholesterol should also be considered when selecting food and drinks to prepare.
The caregiver may also be required to shop for groceries or accompany the care recipient to the grocery store. The help and advice of a nutritionist should be considered when planning meals for the care recipient.
In many cases, the person who is being cared for is no longer able to drive. They may also not be able to make use of public transportation unaccompanied. A caregiver will drive the person they are caring for or accompany them when using public transport to where they want to go. They will also assist the care receiver into vehicles or wheelchairs if one is needed.
Caregivers usually take the person in their care to doctor’s appointments and personal care appointments like hair appointments. They could also take the care recipient to visit friends or family members, participate in leisure activities or hobbies, or run some errands.
Providing support to the family.
Caregivers can provide support for the care recipient’s family. They can counsel family members by educating or advising them on how to help their loved one. They offer the family peace of mind that their loved one is taken care of.
Helpful Traits and Skills of Caregivers
Caregiving involves more than just fulfilling specific tasks. Those who provide care to others also need to hold specific skills and traits that help provide better care for their patients. These skills and traits may not be listed as part of the caregiver job description but are extremely valuable to have or cultivate.
Compassion and empathy.
When a person is compassionate, they show sympathy and concern for others. This skill is essential for caregivers to have because they are taking care of vulnerable individuals. Often the person in their care is frail or distressed, and a certain degree of compassion is required when caring for them.
Empathetic caregivers have a strong sense and understanding of what the care recipient is going through. Although the caregiver likely has not gone through the same experiences as the persons they are taking care of, they need to see things from the care recipient’s point of view. This will allow them to give the best care based on the care recipient’s unique needs.
Taking care of someone could cause many frustrations. There may be challenges due to difficulties in communication or if the care recipient is illogical, frustrated, or confused. Caregivers may face some degree of hostility from the care recipient, especially if the person is not entirely on board with having a caregiver. It takes plenty of patience to work through these intense emotions with the care recipient.
Part of a caregiver’s job description is to clean up messes. This could include when the care recipient has soiled themselves or vomited. These duties are unpleasant and could cause some frustration for the caregiver.
Becoming frustrated and impatient under challenging situations will likely affect the quality of care and the relationship between the caregiver and care recipient. It could also cause significant caregiver stress, which could lead to caregiver burnout.
Caregivers often need to advocate for the care recipients because they may not be able to do it for themselves. They need to speak to medical professionals, nutritionists, and the care receiver’s family. The caregiver is likely to accompany the care recipient to medical and other appointments. They then need to clearly relay the information from those appointments to the care recipient’s family members.
They also need to communicate with the person in their care. In some cases, the care recipient could have limited ability to communicate in the traditional manner. In this case, the caregiver will need to adapt and possibly learn new skills to communicate clearly with the person they provide care for.
Persons who need the services of a caregiver will benefit from having a schedule, especially if someone has diminishing mental capacity. It brings a sense of consistency and stability.
In some cases, certain medications need to be taken at specific times of the day. Having a consistent schedule makes it easier to manage these situations, and less likely they will miss a dose.
A caregiver will often be required to take the care recipient to appointments and social events. Having good time management skills is essential to meet these engagements. It also helps reduce stress on both the caregiver and care recipient that could be caused when they are rushing while running late for an event or meeting.
Organization and cleanliness.
Household tasks are a part of a caregiver’s job description. Keeping the care recipient’s home clean and organized is essential to providing them effective care. Having everything tidy and in its place makes the care recipient more comfortable. It also helps the caregiver work more efficiently when they have what they need on hand in the areas where they are likely to be used. More than that, the caregiver needs to easily find what they need in the unfortunate event of an emergency.
Because caregivers may be required to handle some of the care recipient’s finances and other paperwork, they need to keep all documents well organized.
Caregivers should not only practice good hygiene, but they also need to assist the care recipient with maintaining personal hygiene. Keeping things clean and sterile is especially important when the caregiver is required to provide wound care.
Flexibility and problem-solving.
While being organized is a critical skill for a caregiver to have, they also need to make accommodations for any changes or unforeseen events that may arise. Care recipient’s needs could differ from day to day. A caregiver should be able to pivot and meet those needs while still maintaining some kind of organization, structure, and consistency in the care provided.
They also need to be flexible about which duties they perform and when they complete them. While they could usually do some tasks like meal preparation according to a schedule, others like cleaning up a care recipient who has soiled themselves will come up unexpectedly and may even change meal preparation time.
A caregiver faces many challenges on a near-daily basis. They need to effectively solve problems that may arise for themselves and the person they are taking care of.
Be physically fit.
Caregivers need to be physically fit and strong. Their duties often require them to carry heavy objects, like grocery bags. They may also need to lift the care recipient when assisting them in and out of a wheelchair. Other duties like keeping the house clean and well maintained require some degree of physical activity as well. Being physically fit enables a caregiver to provide the best care possible to the care recipient. It also helps keep the caregiver safe and avoid injuries that could potentially be caused by overexertion or handling too much weight without using proper techniques.
Paying attention to details.
Many aspects of providing care for a vulnerable individual involve situations where the caregiver needs to pay attention to details. This could include which medication should be taken when and which foods to prepare for the care recipient.
They also need to pay close attention to the care recipient’s behavior and mental and physical health. This will help them to identify any concerning changes and bring them to the attention of the care recipient’s family or medical professionals. This can significantly improve the quality of care that is being provided.
A caregiver’s duties cover a range of tasks and could vary from day to day. These duties revolve around providing the best care to the individual receiving that care. Skills like compassion and patience, good communication skills, the ability to pay attention to details, and being physically strong and healthy all assist a caregiver in taking care of those who depend on them for their wellbeing. While a caregiving role could be demanding, it is also gratifying.